10 November 2016
Some of the 60 or so attendees for the East Midlands AGM may remember little of those brief proceedings, but instead, may have left the Keighton Auditorium, University of Nottingham, determined to brush up on their Anglo-Saxon.
Dr Steve Diggle described how he and colleagues from both the sciences and humanities had followed an ancient recipe in Bald’s Leechbook, an old medical text compiled in the ninth century, with astounding results.
“Work an eye salve for a wen, take cropleek and garlic, of both equal quantities, pound them well together, take wine and bullocks’ gall, of both equal quantities, mix with the leek, put this then into a brazen vessel, let it stand nine days in the brass vessel, wring out through a cloth and clear it well, put it into a horn, and about night time apply it with a feather to the eye.”
Taken from Cockayne’s 1865 translation, the “wen” was probably a sty, an infection of an eyelash follicle usually attributed to the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus.
Great care was taken to follow the recipe as stated although “cropleek” demanded another, somewhat ambiguous, Allium species. Accordingly, batches were made up with either onion or leek and squares of brass sheet were used to simulate the brass/bronze vessel. Following an ancient recipe to this degree is most rare, so the discovery that the resultant clear, slightly acidic brownish liquid really did work wonders amazed the laboratory and sent the national press into somewhat of a frenzy. Perhaps most notably, the remedy killed that most notorious of pathogens, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in a mouse chronic wound model.
Furthermore, laboratory results repeatedly confirmed that it is only the combination of all of the said ingredients that results in significant bactericidal activity, and even waiting the nine days was important.
Steve Diggle and his co-workers are left with many unanswered questions, but the hope remains that therein could be much potential in an otherwise doom-laden area of concern regarding increasing levels of antibiotic resistance.
14 July 2016
Professor Charlie Bamforth is a distinguished professor in the Department of Food Science & Technology at the University of California, Davis. English by birth, Charlie is a Fellow of the Society and an honorary professor on the Sutton Bonington campus of the University of Nottingham. In both 2014, and this year, he has come to Nottingham throughout July to teach a summer abroad class.
Hence, some 30 plus members and their guests were lucky enough to hear Charlie’s talk about brewing, a fascinating science which encompasses complex aspects of biochemistry and enzymology.
The end product, treated with respect, has health giving properties too. Historically, social history records even remind us that it was those drinking porter who survived the scourges of cholera that plagued early urban lives. In some circles Charlie is known as the “pope of foam” because some of the research in his laboratories focuses on creating the perfect foam and with it, the best of tastes. We even had a mini lesson on how to wash glasses efficiently so as not to disrupt the all-important head of foam.
When the talk concluded, we all raised our glasses to toast the now ‘Royal’ Society of Biology.
Tours of the brewery followed, led by Bruce Wilkinson, who together with Geoff Mumford had purchased the Burton Bridge Inn back in 1981 with a view to setting up their own small brewery. He spoke of the the importance of the water, with its perfect balance of Burton salts, the various cereal grains (some with an intriguing, chocolately taste), and the hops, which we rubbed together in the palms of our hands in order to savour their aroma.
What a lot to consider, not forgetting the yeasts of course. And what fun to climb a step ladder and peer into the bubbling tanks before us!
Such a lot going on in a relatively small space and a truly memorable evening.
26 April 2016
Sir Walter enthrals with a talk entitled “Genes, history and archaeology: A case study of the British People”.
Sir Walter Bodmer’s talk gave some fascinating insights into the fine-scale structure of the British population. Generally, the population structure within the UK is limited, with only three genetically distinct regions evident when using less refined methods.
The Orkneys are obviously quite different, undoubtedly a result of long term Viking influence (875-1472). Wales is also relatively distinct from the rest of the UK.
However, the fine detail described in this study demonstrates an equivalence between clusters and what may have been ancient kingdoms and geographical boundaries. Thus Cornwall and Devon show distinct differences between themselves and the rest of England and another subtype roughly follows the Wales/England border.
The well recognised ‘little England in Pembrokeshire’ also shows prominently. At a finer level there are some differences between North and South Wales become evident but there is no evidence for a general ‘Celtic’ population.
Central and Southern England were found to be the most homogenous regions with the largest influence from Anglo-Saxon migration, although this is estimated to be less than previously thought at between 10 and 40 per cent.
Nevertheless, perhaps the most significant finding is that the populations have been relatively stable over a long period of time in spite of various invasions and occupation.
As Sir Walter drew his intriguing and thought provoking lecture to a close, the audience responded with many questions revealing their keen interest in his research. Were they still pondering their own genetic lineage as they made their way home?
12 March 2016
Valued sponsorship from the Society for Endocrinology (SfE) enabled local youngsters, accompanied by their teachers and parents, to gather at the University of Leicester to celebrate the start of British Science Week. Professor Saffron Whitehead represented the SfE and contributed much to the day's activities. A hands-on activity session gave students the opportunity to ask her about the roles of the various endocrine glands, while a rolling power point provided extra visual and factual detail that would prove invaluable in the quiz she had devised.
The senior students heard from Mr Gareth Price, a PhD student from the University of Lincoln, who explained some aspects of his research into how diabetes affects the kidneys. Meanwhile, Ms Rebecca Pritchard from the Diabetes Research Centre at Leicester had her hands full with students pedalling away on exercise bikes (endorphins alert!) and contemplating lifestyle choices.
In the same laboratory a bench full of very large books surrounded Dr Marie Nugent, a recent postgraduate from the University of Leicester. Inside, in very small font and to everyone's amazement, she revealed the complete base sequence for the whole of the human genome. "That has made my day," said one of the teachers present.
The business of the day followed, with the junior competitors standing by their posters and models, and the seniors by their essays. All had to defend their interpretation of the theme for the day - 'Endocrinology: biological messaging'.
If not being quizzed by the judges, the students were racking their brains to complete the aforementioned quiz. A relaxing lunch followed and then everyone listened with much interest to a short lecture by Professor Whitehead, entitled, 'Hormones, homeostasis and health'.
Finally, the difficult judging over, £50 first prizes were awarded to Roshan Klein-Seethararman (Lutterworth High School) for his poster on insulin and to Olivia Greatbatch (Denstone College) for her essay highlighting some of the ongoing and exciting research in the field of microbial endocrinology.
12 November 2015
Over 90 attendees made their way to the Great Hall at the University of Nottingham for the lecture 'Defeating Cancer - why it is such a challenge?' As it stands, 1 in 3 of us will suffer from the disease and 1 in 4 of us will die from it – a sobering statistic presented very early on by Professor Andrew Fry from the University of Leicester.
This disease, of which there are over 200 different types, can best be thought of as a distorted version of our normal selves. The cancerous changes are due to the accumulation of mutations with time that lead to the hyperplasia (overgrowth of cells) and dysplasia (altered cell behaviour) associated with the disease. Tumour heterogeneity studies have also revealed the amazing plasticity of cancer. As metastasis progresses a cancer can undergo an evolutionary process within the body, creating many genetically distinct cells.
The name originated in 400 BC when Hippocrates gave an incurable condition the name Cancer (karkinos in Greek) - alluding to the crab like appearance of a tumour surrounded by the blood vessels 'feeding it'. Who would have thought that chemotherapy's beginnings arose from noticing the reduction in the white blood cell count in survivors of mustard gas attacks in the First World War.
Nitrogen mustard was given intravenously – a terrifying thought back then, but cytotoxic Mustargen is still used today to kill rapidly dividing cells in leukaemia and lung cancer. The side effects of such agents are all too familiar and not surprising because many of our normal cells are actively dividing too. For every minute that we sat in the audience we were making 12,000 million new gut cells, 300 million new red blood cells and new hair deep in the follicles of our skin.
The natural chemotherapeutic agents, Taxol (derived from Yew) and the vinca alkaloids (Madagascar Periwinkle), work in a different way because they affect microtubules – intracellular structures of particular interest to Professor Fry. These drugs prevent the pulling apart of the chromosome copies on the mitotic spindle, thereby preventing cell division. Short video clips, some using the latest fluorescent imaging techniques, highlighted the mitotic process and the effect of drugs that prevent cancer cells dividing.
Molecular biology has allowed great understanding of how mutations affect the start/stop signals in cancerous growth. In chronic myelogenous leukaemia, for example, this has enabled development of drugs that block the fusion protein produced as a result of the reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22. Advances in structural biology have also enabled more successful design of drugs that can inhibit the proteins driving the cancer. Furthermore, rapid sequencing of a person's genome will allow treatment to be targeted to the mutational profile of each individual patient. However, most patients on targeted therapies relapse through drug resistance, presenting another challenge!
What of the future? The ambition now is to achieve a 75% survival rate following a cancer diagnosis, as compared to the current 50%. Early diagnosis is paramount – perhaps blood tests that can reveal the oncogenes that are shed into the blood, 'breathalysers' that copy dogs and can detect the cancerous molecules in a person's breath? Many cancer cells have too many centrosomes, but nevertheless are able to cluster them into the poles of the spindle and divide. If drugs could prevent this clustering the cells would die. Hope indeed, but a challenge it remains.
Professor Fry is very grateful to Worldwide Cancer Research, Cancer Research UK and Hope Against Cancer who fund the research in his laboratory.
16 June 2015
Members of the East Midlands branch enjoyed an evening meeting at the Hammond Arboretum of the Robert Smyth Academy, Market Harborough, on one of the few warm and sunny evenings of the summer thus far. The talks and guidance were by the school's retired head of biology, George Marshall MRSB, who doubles as curator, historian, propagandist and fundraiser. George is supported admirably by Gilli Claycomb, whose maps, excellent tree labels and extensive botanical and plant lore knowledge are central to the appreciation of this extraordinary gem of bio-conservation.
In around 1911 Francis Hammond, then headmaster of the local Grammar School, decided to plant an arboretum in a plot he had bought at the end of his own garden. In 1913 he was able to obtain fine young trees from commercial nurseries with a strong emphasis on non-native species of suggested medicinal values.
When he died in 1937 there were as many as 2,000 trees and shrubs in the collection, which must have been one of the finest small arboreta in the country.
This arboretum can be considered a living laboratory of economic botany and phytotaxonomy. Here visitors can benefit from seeing, touching and learning about a select collection of mainly unusual trees, some of which are distinctly rare in cultivation. Much more important may be that many can furnish sources for pharmacognosy, which is staging something of a resurgence of interest as more and more ailments and their pathogens become resistant to the chemists' and now biotechnologists' ever more costly attempts to overcome them.
The labelling of the trees and shrubs is informative to the Linnean binomial level and the geographically native origins of each are given. The non-use of family names may somewhat mask the relevance of plant family affiliations with physiologically active biochemical metabolites. Those associations are just what the modern researchers, and those of the last fifty years or so have followed in their searches for new useful molecular structures of actual or potential value.
The excellent well illustrated guide to the arboretum, with Gilli Claypole's map in centrefold, is well worth detailed study. Walking in pleasant gardens with a notebook is, I think, a good habit for lifelong botanical self-education. This reviewer's notebook overflowed.
6 June 2015
In the latest of a series of clifftop 'lunches on the edge', about 30 naturalists from the East Midlands branch of the Society and the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO) converged on Hilltop Farm at Welbourn in Lincolnshire, at the invitation of Marianne and Peter Overton.
The farm is situated on the outskirts of the village, a few miles south of Lincoln and high up on the Lincoln Escarpment, where it overlooks the broad expanse of the Trent valley to the west.
The programme for the day was in three parts: a bird-ringing session, a formal talk and – most important – lunch! There was also the opportunity for some of us to carry out specific wildlife surveys – in my case, snails.
Donna Staples and Ian McGregor of the BTO's Mid-Lincs Ringing Group led the group round a conserved, circular area of woodland-bordered pasture in which they had rigged up several mist-nets. Donna showed the group how she and Ian captured birds, checked their species, age, sex (by blowing feathers away from the cloaca) and ringed status – and, if un-ringed, ringed them while we watched.
Twelve birds of ten species were caught, including a juvenile pied wagtail (Motacilla alba) and six re-traps. Also of interest were several nesting great tits (Parus major).
Back in the Overtons' garden, local celebrity-biologist and 'slug-man', Chris du Feu gave a very witty and thought-provoking talk entitled 'Little People in the Wildlife Classroom', about the need to get younger generations interested and involved in the natural world. His audience made him work for his supper with a lively question-and-answer session.
The Overtons had laid on a superb cold buffet – which gave the assembled naturalists the opportunity to meet and mingle. Everyone present agreed that the latest 'lunch on the edge' had been a great success – although a few more birds would not have gone amiss.
It is hoped that, later in the year or perhaps next year, a Bioblitz [in which a weekend is given over to producing a complete species list of an area] will be organised at Hilltop Farm by the Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union. We've already made a start on the slugs and snails – and on the birds, of course.
14 March 2015
With GENIE, the Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning in Genetics, as the annual host, some 100 or so visitors streamed into the University of Leicester. Competitors, family members, teachers and judges for the Schools event crossed paths with guided tours for prospective undergraduates giving an extra buzz to a normally quiet Saturday morning.
Students from years 8 to 13 were celebrating the start of the newly named British Science Week (formerly National Science & Engineering Week). In the junior section (8-10) pupils had prepared posters on the theme "Extreme biology" whilst the older students submitted essays. How different were their interpretations and hence what a challenge for the teams of judges!
Whilst parents and teachers exchanged supportive smiles with the apprehensive students, they in turn waited to be quizzed by the judges on their approach and content of their poster or essay. This, the most testing aspect of the competition, is what makes it so special.
Having relaxed over lunch, everyone was eagerly anticipating the lecture to follow when Dr Shaun Cowley from the Department of Biochemistry would talk on "Stem cells: from the origins of life to tissue regeneration". Meanwhile, in the judges room, quite heated discussion continued for some time, pens hovering over the certificates and cheques for £50 that would be awarded to the winners! Decisions made, the winners were congratulated.
Junior prize winners
Rhea Suribatala and Shreeya Thakrar scooped the first prize in the junior section with their poster "Mitochondrial manipulation" whilst runner-up Adam Dodd received £20 for his exposition on Tardigrades, "When the going gets tough, the tough get going". A runners-up prize also went to Orieanna Reeve-Chen and Namrata Joshi for "The world's toughest bacterium".
In the senior section, Lauren Church won with her essay "Extreme biology: Moving to Mars". The two runners up were Freya Hartshorn with "Where do we draw the line" and Aditi Pandey with "The extremes of medical treatment: Nanotechnology and robotic surgery".
Senior prize winners
16 December 2014
With the excitement of the end of term over, a small group of us were treated to a special tour of some of the facilities at Moulton College. Especially instructive was meeting one of the associate lecturers, Jessica York, in the Equine Therapy Centre. Her current research aims to provide quantitative analysis of the way horses move when exercising through different depths of water. Reporting on some of her results later in the symposium, it was obvious how this will promote best practice when using the aqua-treadmill to rehabilitate and exercise horses.
Next stop was the Sports Therapy Centre with its state-of-the-art facilities including a 25m, six lane swimming pool with moveable floor and a whole body cryotherapy chamber. We walked through the latter trying to imagine what it would be like when set at -60 C to -140 C. Using extremely cold temperatures for short periods has been shown to naturally stimulate the body to decrease inflammation and pain and promote healing as a result.
Moving on, we caught a glimpse of canine hydrotherapy and some posh grooming before touring the Animal Welfare Centre. We saw Meerkats on the lookout in the winter sun, porcupines, tropical birds, rabbits and guinea pigs, tree frogs, an array of different reptiles and even a civet.
Credit: Moulton College
Some of the many different areas of research at the college were highlighted in the afternoon symposium. From "Why did the harvest mouse cross the road?" to the research into Specific Replant Disease that affects several economically important fruit and ornamental trees, the list of topics was noticeably diverse and drew many interesting questions from the assembled audience. Many thanks, Moulton, for a fascinating day.
11 November 2014
Professor Richard James, of the University of Nottingham, gave his perspective on the somewhat alarming scenario that the world may be approaching a time when antibiotics have little value as therapeutic agents. Over-use, misuse and insufficient incentives to develop new products all contribute.
In his early career, James (pictured above with members of the branch committee) was fascinated by the many different mechanisms through which antibiotics exert their effects, and soon realised that bacterial resistance to antibiotics would be an increasingly serious problem. He championed the call for additional research until in 2007, he launched the Centre for Healthcare Associated Infections (CHAI) at Nottingham amidst charges of being a sensationalist and scaremonger.
Beta-lactamases are rapidly making the penicillin-based antibiotics redundant and resistance is growing even to the carbapenems, which are known as the antibiotics of last resort against some key gram-negative pathogens. As more antibiotics are used the selection pressure intensifies and as people move so does resistance. Transposons, together with the ease by which plasmids bearing resistance genes can be transferred between pathogens, mean that resistance develops far quicker than we can respond. Hopes were raised between 1995 and 2001 when targeted gene-based technologies were introduced. Costing billions, but with no new antibiotics on the market, the search continues via the old method of random screening.
Potential solutions include a tax on every use of antibiotics. However, this would have to be introduced in all antibiotic using countries and yet not disadvantage the poor. Rapid molecular diagnostic tests are vital, as is co-ordinated international action. More education, no prescribing before microbiology results are available and, of course, stopping the routine use of antibiotics in agriculture.
With record numbers in the audience, Professor James fielded many thought provoking questions, but made it clear that there are no easy answers.
5 July 2014
A warm welcome awaited the small group of would be botanists eagerly anticipating a wildflower walk in the grounds of Moulton College. Brian Laney, a self-taught botanist with over 25 years' experience, led us through the afternoon's mini 'bioblitz', identifying the flora of different plant communities in the gardens and conservation area.
Brian is involved with the local conservation efforts for species such as Shepherd's Needle (Scandex pectin-veneris) and Subterranean Clover (Trifolium subterraneum), both of which were shown to the group during an introduction by Adrian Stockdale (senior lecturer in horticulture).
One lawn produced a good number of species due to the mowing regime, including Wall Speedwell (Veronica arvensis), Lesser Trefoil (Trifolium dubium) and Thyme-leaved Speedwell (Veronica serpyllifolia). While wandering along the edge of one particular field the group spotted Grey Field Speedwell (Veronica polita), a species much overlooked in the county, while Cuckooflower (Cardamine pratensis) was recorded in damper ground. Further along and bordering a stream there were a number of different species including Great Willowherb (Epilobium hirsutum), False Oat-Grass (Arrhenatherum elatius), Hop (Humulus lupulus), Water Mint (Mentha aquatica), Fool's Water-cress (Apium nodiflorum) and Butterbur (Petasites hybridus).
Whether close up with the hairy leaves of Common Mouse-ear (Cerastium holosteoides) or musing on the hidden meaning behind the name of the purple flowering Selfheal (Prunella vulgaris), the hours sped by and everyone agreed that they had learnt something from Brian.
8 June 2014
Lunch on the Edge was hosted at the award-winning Hilltop Farm on the cliff edge overlooking the Trent Valley. The morning, led by Donna Staples, began with successful bird ringing - 31 catches of twelve species, including a marsh tit.
Paul Learoyd, chief executive of the Lincolnshire Wildlife Trust, delivered an excellent presentation on conservation in Lincolnshire. Over 60 years the Wildlife Trust in Lincolnshire has made astounding strides, purchasing reserves and saving species, but perhaps more importantly working with others to enhance wildlife habitat throughout the county.
With over 25,000 members locally, the Wildlife Trusts also work together to influence central government in their policies. Lincolnshire has taken a particular lead in seeking to establish coastal and marine parks, work which continues.
View a slide show of some of the animals seen. Photos courtesy of Clare Adams.
22 March 2014
As National Science and Engineering Week drew to an end, the East Midlands branch enjoyed another successful schools competition held at the University of Leicester. It a lovely spring day and showcased the flair, hard work and dedication of some 28 students from regional schools and colleges. Whether in poster, essay or podcast format their task was to 'Explore the Future' - what would the future hold in biological terms?
Judges, teachers, parents and students, ensured a lively atmosphere and much discussion as students were quizzed on the content and background of their work. Much debate ensued, even after lunch, whilst Dr Salvador Macip from the Department of Biochemistry gave his short lecture entitled 'The Quest for Immortality'. Following the theme of exploring the future, Dr Macip seemed in no doubt that we would be able to extend our lifespan. Getting rid of old cells might be the answer, especially as new research had identified a drug that targets and destroys older cells, thus preventing their damaging effect on neighbouring cells. However, Dr Macip posed an interesting question – 'Do we want the power of immortality on our small and already full planet?'
Sarika Patel (below center) won first prize in the Junior Section with her poster on 'Vertical Farming' and Hannah Erlebach (below left) was runner up with 'Genetics: Engineering the Future'. Two others were highly commended – Zoe Callow (below right) with 'Stem Cells' and Jake Ellar with 'Whale Evolution'.
In the senior section first prize was awarded to Chen Liu for her excellent essay entitled '3D Organ Printing – Can I really Print My Own Liver?' The two runners up were Alisha Patel with 'Da Vinci The Surgeon' and Matthew Clayton with 'Underwater Living'. Emily Cooke was highly commended for her 'Terraform: The Future?'
The day drew to a close with the awarding of a very special prize to Hannah Musson, a Year 13 student who had entered this competition for 4 years running! The book tokens she received would come in useful, we hoped, when she embarks on her degree at the University of Leicester.
The future does indeed look bright!
21 November 2013
Brackenhurst campus of Nottingham Trent University hosted the well-attended branch AGM. Dr Anne Pullen and Dr Gareth Starbuck delivered a lively lecture examining the current situation of giant panda management practices.
The pregnancy (or lack of!) in captive pandas has recently been the subject of much attention and as a subject area attracted an interested and engaged audience.
Anne and Gareth considered all aspects of the giant panda's management, from issues with habitat destruction, ongoing conservation efforts, genetic issues and the obvious (and topical) issues relating to reproductive efforts in captivity.
Interestingly, the in situ giant panda populations are currently doing well in terms of numbers and reproductive output, although remain susceptible to environmental changes to their dietary staple.
Throughout the lecture, questions were encouraged from the floor, which added a degree of fluidity and audience participation to the event. It was clear that the specific biology of the giant panda is increasingly being elucidated and that such work will not only benefit this species, but will also have wider conservation and humanitarian benefits.
The hashtag 'ntukungfupanda' promoted some live tweeting. One tweet in particular summed up the interpretation of captive panda reproduction: "It seems a panda has confusing and disappointing sex too!"
13 July 2013
Our weekend Whisby Nature Park challenge was to identify a thousand species on one site. Led by the Lincolnshire Wildlife Trust (LWT) and the Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union (LNU) the joint bioblitz declared a total of 889 species. An amazing 126 species were new to the reserve list, confirmed by the 17 LNU specialist experts.
It is important to influence youngsters about the value of the natural world, and local LWT WATCH groups, including West Kesteven. Schools came armed with specimen pots and search through the hectare of protected education habitats to find the sort of mini-beasts which adults often miss. The LWT Education Centre provided excellent visual aids such as microscopes and projectors, while officers from LWT HQ helped to keep track of the stream of information for the species lists.
The most specialised contributions came from the Environment Agency whose staff dealt with single celled freshwater animals and algae. Other obscure groups identified were lichens, mosses, slugs, snails, flies, beetles, moths and many more.
In order to expand the lists with nocturnal animals, two moth lights succeeded in attracting about 100 species. The real surprise was finding Nathusius' Pipistrelle, Pipistrellus nathusii, a new and rare species for the reserve. This session lasted until midnight.
On the second day, a visiting entomologist found the characteristic pupal cases of the Large Red-belted Clearwing moth, Synanthedon culiciformis, which had never been recorded here before, protruding from a birch stump. The pale lavender-flowered Small Scabius, Scabiosa columbaria, and the Oval Sedge, Carex ovalis, appeared for the first time.
It was a terrific event buzzing with enthusiastic experts and volunteers, enjoying discovering wildlife in our back yard.
8 June 2013
Three licenced ringers demonstrated netting and ringing farmland birds at an award-winning conservation area on the Lincolnshire Cliff Edge, home to Peter and Marianne Overton. Alan Ball and Keith Boden gave the observers a chance to see wild birds up close and to learn how to assess and record their condition and other details.
The Lincolnshire Edge runs north to south and forms a natural migration route for birds to 'lunch on the edge'. We were joined by the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), West Kesteven Wildlife Watch and RSPB Explorers Group.
Donna Staples coordinator of the RSPB Explorer groups, presented a long service award to local group leader Andrew Chick. Paul Stancliffe of the BTO spoke about the recent strides made in research of the migration routes.
"When I was a young birdwatcher in the mid-70s, it seemed sufficient to understand that many of our summer migrants spent the winter months in Africa, south of the Sahara Desert. It was well known that many of these birds overwintered in the semi-arid zone just south of the desert, stretching from the Atlantic to the west and the Red Sea to the east and known as the Sahel. Ringing recoveries have given us a huge amount of information in this respect.
"However, over the last couple of decades many of our summer migrants have shown alarming declines and it has become more and more important to understand their complete migratory cycle; the routes birds take when they leave the UK, where they stopover to rest and feed en route to their wintering areas, and the precise location of those wintering areas.
"The technological advances in tracking devices, in particular their miniaturisation, has provided scientists with a range of exciting new products that can be used to track birds around the globe and help answer some of these questions. In 2011, the BTO took delivery of five satellite tags which weighed just under 5g, light enough to be fitted to a bird the size of a cuckoo.
"Having lost over 50% of our breeding cuckoos during the last twenty-five years, with the greatest losses in England – cuckoos seem to be holding their own in Scotland and declining less in Wales - it is vital to understand the pressures these different populations face, not only here but also when they leave the UK. These tags are enabling scientists at the BTO to do just this. They have already highlighted hitherto unknown migration routes through Iberia and the Adriatic, identified stopover sites and the winter location but there is still a lot more to uncover."
Anyone can follow these birds as they make their way to Africa on the BTO website.
28 October 2012
Ray Halstead, expert mycologist and County Recorder for Lincolnshire, led the annual public foray at Whisby Nature Park.
About 25 of us headed off with high hopes and we soon found mushrooms and toadstools aplenty. Tricholoma scalpturatum, the Yellowing Knight, was one of the first finds although it needed to be taken home for positive identification. The Snowy Waxcap, Hygrocybe virginea, was discovered south of the railway line in some short grass and Clouded Agaric, Clitocybe nebularis, was found in the leaf litter under an oak tree on the edge of the deciduous wood. On venturing towards the Waxcap Meadow we encountered the Fly Agaric, Amanita muscaria and a fine clump of Common Puffballs, Lycoperdon perlatum, covered in the tiny white 'pearls' from which their Latin name is derived.
When approaching the heathland, in the woodland adjacent to the path was Brown Rollrim, Paxillus involutus and growing from the base of an old stump the Oyster Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, the latter prized for its culinary value, the former most certainly not!
A large and very old Leccinum scabrum, the Brown Birch Bolete, was handed to Ray, but much to the disappointment of some of the youngsters it wasn't stuffed full of maggots when he sliced it through!
22 November 2012
Nottingham Trent University hosted our Annual General Meeting. The meeting received and accepted the Chairman's Report, Treasurer's report and agreed the budget for 2012/13.
Special note was made of the contribution Dr Pat Horton has made to branch life as she announced her retirement from the committee. Dr Horton has devoted considerable time to ensuring that the branch ran smoothly and has just completed a stint as treasurer in challenging times. Dr Horton's position of Treasurer has been taken by Dr Cas Kramer (GENIE, University of Leicester).
The evening concluded with a lecture on The Performance Animal: A scientific approach presented by Dr Jacqueline Boyd and Ms Cassie White of Nottingham Trent University. It was interesting to hear how the scientific approach to enhancing the performance of elite athletes was being applied to horses and dogs. The physiological differences between humans, equines and canines were explained, as were some of the techniques applied to mapping these differences. It was noted that performance mapping was not new to the equine world but lagged behind modern sports science as applied to humans. Looking at the performance of canine athletes is a young science, but a rapidly developing one that is already shaping how the sports are conducted.
David Ashworth CBiol MSB